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Lesson 1 : Introduction to HTML


[1.1 What is Internet][1.2 What is HTML][1.3 Document Structure]

1.1 What is Internet

The Internet is a network of millions of computers connected together in some way so that they could share information. . A network could be as simple as two computers connected to each other or it could be as complex as millions of computers connected to each other like the Internet. In order for a computer to be part of a network it has to be connected to another computer that is also part of that network .This allows computers to "talk" to each other using certain protocol. They could share files and other information. This is the way our email, the World Wide Web and other services work over the Internet.

Each computer on the Internet has an address. This address is also called an Internet Protocol address(IP address). An IP address contains two important pieces of information: Where the computer is located and what kind of network it is on. When a computer wants to send information to another computer it puts a label on the message which contains the IP address of the computer for which the information is intended. The information then pass through a chain of computers on the Internet. When a computer receives a packet of information it looks at the label and sends it in the direction of where the IP address is located. The information eventually makes its way to the computer with the correct IP address. It does not really matter how far apart two computers are. As long as they are both connected to the same network, they could share information.

Servers are machines that make information available to other people on the Internet. They are primarily powerful computers that store information like email, web pages and databases. They are usually on 24 hours a day so that we could access the information any time anywhere. In order for a web page to be visible to others on the Internet, it must be put on a server.

There are a number of services on the Internet that enable computers to share and access information. Among them, the most popular one is the World Wide Web. The reason why it has become so popular so fast is because it provides multimedia information and interaction. Images, text, animation, movies, games and many other information could be shared between computers. Each web page has its own Internet address called URL(Uniform Resource Locator) so that Internet users could access it using standard browser such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer. Web pages are designed using HTML.


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1.2 What is HTML

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language, the major language of the World Wide Web. Web sites and web pages are written in HTML. With HTML and the WWW, we have the ability to bring together text, pictures, sounds, video and links all in one place! HTML files are plain-text files, so they could be edited on any type of computer....IBM, Mac, UNIX, whatever using standard editors such as notepad an wordpad in Windows 98. HTML can be viewed using browser such as Netscape and IE. The reason why HTML is the standard formatting tool for WWW is that it is cross platforms, meaning that it could be viewed through different type of computers with different operating system such as the Mainframes, Apple computers, the UNIX system and the popular IBM compatible PCs. It is sort of a common Internet language.

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1.3 Document Structure

HTML files are just normal text files, they usually have the extension of .html, .htm or .shtml. HTML documents are generally divided into two parts, the head and the body. The body is the larger part of the document, as the body of a letter you would write to a friend would be. The head of the document contains the document's title and similar information, and the body contains the contents and everything else.

Example of a  basic HTML document structure:

<head><title>Title goes here</title></head>
<body>Body goes here</body>

You might find it easier to read if you add extra blank lines such as follows:

<title>Title goes here</title>
Body goes here


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